Penetrant Testing

Liquid penetrant testing is probably the most widely used NDT method. The test object or material is coated with a visible or fluorescent dye solution. The excess dye is removed from the surface, and then a developer is applied. The developer acts like a blotter. It draws penetrant out of the imperfections which are open to the surface. With visible dyes, the vivid color contrast between the penetrant and the developer makes the bleed out easy to see. An ultraviolet lamp is used to make the bleed out fluoresce brightly, thus allowing the imperfection to be seen clearly. *Indicates the minimum days of classes.

Training to Level I Duration: 3 days*
Training to Level II Duration: 3 days*
Training – Level II Refresher Duration: 3 days*
  • View Syllabus

    1.0 Introduction

    1.1 Brief history of nondestructive testing and liquid penetrant testing
    1.2 Purpose of testing
    1.3 Basic principles of liquid penetrant testing
    1.4 Types of penetrants commercially available
    1.5 Method of personnel qualification

    2.0 Liquid penetrant processing

    2.1 Preparation of parts
    2.2 Adequate lighting
    2.3 Application of penetrant to parts
    2.4 Removal of surface penetrant
    2.5 Developer application and drying
    2.6 Inspection and evaluation
    2.7 Post cleaning

    3.0 Various penetrant testing equipment

    3.1 Liquid penetrant testing units
    3.2 Lighting required for inspection
    3.3 Light measurements
    3.4 Materials for penetrant testing
    3.5 Precautions in penetrant testing

    4.0 Inspection and evaluation of Indications

    4.1 Discontinuities inherent in various materials
    4.2 Reason for indication
    4.3 Appearance of indications
    4.4 Time for indications to appear
    4.5 Persistence of indications
    4.6 Effects of temperature and lighting ( WL to UV)
    4.7 Effects of metal smearing operations
    4.8 Preferred sequence for penetrant testing
    4.9 Precleaning

    5.0 Factors affecting indications

    5.1 Penetrant used
    5.2 Prior processing
    5.3 Technique used

    6.0 Indications from cracks

    6.1 Cracks occuring during solidification
    6.2 Cracks occuring during processing
    6.3 Cracks occuring during service

    7.0 Indications from Porosity

    7.1 Forgings
    7.2 Castings
    7.3 Plate
    7.4 Welds
    7.5 Extrusions

    8.0 Evaluation of Indications

    8.1 True indications
    8.2 False indications
    8.3 Relevant indications
    8.4 Nonrelevant indications

    9.0 Process control

    10.0 Indications, discontinuities and defects

    10.1 Indications
    10.2 Discontinuities
    10.3 Inherent
    10.4 Processing
    10.4 Service

    11.0 Manufacturing processes and associated discontinuities

    11.1 Casting processes and associated discontinuities
    11.2 Ingots, blooms and billets

    12 Sand casting

    12.1 Centrifugal casting
    12.1 Investment casting

    13.0 Wrought processes and associated discontinuities

    13.1 Forgings
    13.2 Rolled products
    13.3 Extruded products

    14.0 Welding processes and associated discontinuities

    14.1 SAW
    14.2 SMAW
    14.3 GMAW
    14.4 FCAW
    14.5 GTAW
    14.6 Resistance welding
    14.7 Special welding processes – Electron beam, electroslag etc.

    15.0 Introduction to Codes, Standards, Specifications and Procedures

    15.1 Discussion on ASTM E 165, ASME`Section V
    15.2 Question answer session on above codes
    15.3 Interpretation / Evaluation
    15.4 Materials processing as it affects use of item and test results
    15.5 Discontinuities, their causes and effects
    15.6 Recognizing discontinuity indications
    15.7 Nonrelevant indications
    15.8 Relevant indications

    16.0 Practical workout

    16.1 Procedure B3 on welds and other components
    16.2 Procedure A3 on welds and other components]
    16.3 Light measurements using light meter
    16.4 Recording of indications
    16.5 Acceptance criteria

    17.0 Report preparation

    NDTTECH recommended training time for Level I / II – 24 Hours ( 3 Days minimum)
    Recommended training references: (1) ASNT Handbook on PT (2) Nondestructive
    Testing Hand book, Robert Mc Master (3) SNT TC 1A