Radiographic Testing (RT)

Radiographic Testing involves the use of penetrating X or Gamma radiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. An X – ray machine or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation. Radiation is directed through a part onto the film. When the film is developed, a shadowgraph is obtained that shows the internal soundness of the part. *Indicates the minimum days of classes. Taxes extra.

ASNT Level I Duration: 10 days* Fees: Rs 10,900
ASNT Level II Duration: 10 days* Fees: Rs 11,500
Level II Refresher Duration: 10 days* Fees: Rs 11,000
  • View Syllabus

    1.0 Introduction

    1.1 History and discovery of radioactive materials
    1.2 Definition of Industrial radiography
    1.3 Need for radiation protection
    1.4 Review of school maths
    1.5 Responsibilities of levels of certification

    2.0 Fundamental properties of matter

    2.1 Elements and atoms
    2.2 Molecules and compounds
    2.3 Atomic particles
    2.4 Atomic structure
    2.5 Atomic number and weight
    2.6 Isotope Vs Radioisotope

    3.0 Radioactive materials

    3.1 Production
    3.2 Stable Vs Unstable
    3.3 Curie
    3.4 Half life of radioactive materials
    3.5 Plotting of radioactive decay
    3.6 Specific activity

    4.0 Types of radiation

    4.1 Particulate radiation
    4.2 Electromagnetic radiation
    4.3 X ray production
    4.4 Gamma ray production
    4.5 Gamma ray energy
    4.6 Energy characteristics of common radioisotopes
    4.7 Energy characteristics of X ray machine

    5.0 Interaction of radiation with matter

    5.1 Ionization
    5.2 Radiation interaction with matter
    5.3 Unit of exposure – the roentgen
    5.4 Emissivity of sources
    5.5 Emissivity of X ray devices
    5.6 Attenuation of radiation, shielding
    5.7 Half value layers
    5.8 Inverse square law

    6.0 Biological effects of radiation

    6.1 Natural, background radiation
    6.2 Unit of radiation dose
    6.3 Radiation, contamination
    6.4 Exposure limits and the banking concept
    6.5 Theory of allowable dose
    6.6 Radiation damage
    6.7 Symptoms of radiation injury
    6.8 Acute radiation exposure and somatic injury
    6.9 Personnel monitoring for tracking exposure
    6.10 Organ radiosensitivity

    7.0 Radiation detection

    7.1 Pocket dosimeter
    7.2 Difference between dose and dose rate
    7.3 Survey instruments
    7.3 Geiger – Muller tube
    7.4 Ionization chambers
    7.5 Scintillation chambers, counters
    7.6 Film badge
    7.7 TLDs
    7.8 Calibration

    8.0 Exposure devices and radiation sources

    8.1 Sealed source design and fabrication
    8.2 Gamma ray sources
    8.3 Beta and bremsstrahlung sources
    8.4 Neutron sources
    8.5 Exposure device characteristics
    8.6 Generator – high voltage rectifiers
    8.7 X ray tube design and fabrication
    8.8 X ray control circuits
    8.9 Accelerating potential
    8.10 Target material and configuration
    8.11 Heat dissipation
    8.12 Duty cycle
    8.13 beam filtration

    9.0 Principles of Flash radiography, Stereo radiography, In-motion radiography, Autoradiography

    10.0 Radiographic technique

    10.1 Process of radiography
    10.2 Penetrating ability or quality of X rays and gamma rays
    10.3 Spectrum of X ray tube source
    10.4 Spectrum of gamma radioisotope source
    10.4 X ray tube – change of mA or kVp effectquality and intensity

    11.0 Geometric exposure principles

    11.1 Shadow formation and distortion
    11.2 Shadow enlargement calculation
    11.3 Shadow sharpness
    11.4 Geometric unsharpness
    11.5 Finding discontinuity depth

    12.0 Radiographic screens

    12.1 Lead intensifying screens
    12.2 Fluorescent intensifying screens
    12.3 Intensifying factors
    12.4 Importance of screen to film contact
    12.5 Importance of screen cleanliness and care
    12.6 Techniques for cleaning screens
    12.7 Radiographic cassettes
    12.8 Composition of Industrial radiographic film
    12.9 The heel effect with X ray tubes

    13. Raidographs

    13.1 Formation of the latent image on film
    13.2 Inherent unsharpness
    13.3 Arithmetic of radiographic exposure
    13.4 milliamperage
    13.5 Reciprocity law
    13.6 Photographic density
    13.7 X ray exposure charts – material thickness, kV and exposure
    13.8 Gamma ray exposure chart
    13.9 Inverse square law considerations
    13.10 Calculation of exposure time for gamma ray and X ray sources
    13.11 Characteristic Hurter and Driffield curve
    13.12 Film speed and class descriptions
    13.13 Selection of film for particular purpose

    14.0 Radiographic image quality

    14.1 Radiographic Sensitivity
    14.2 Radiographic Contrast
    14.3 Film contrast
    14.4 Subject contrast
    14.5 Definition
    14.6 Film graininess and screen mottle effects
    14.7 Penetrameters or image quality indicators

    15.0 Film handling, loading and Processing

    15.1 Safe light and darkroom practices
    15.2 Loading bench and cleanliness
    15.3 Opening of film boxes and packets
    15.4 Loading of film and sealing cassettes
    15.5 Handling techniques for green film
    15.6 Elements of manual film processing

    16.0 Exposure techniques

    16.1 Single wall radiography
    16.2 Double wall radiography
    16.3 Viewing two walls simultaneously
    16.4 Offset double wall exposure single wall viewing
    16.5 Elliptical techniques
    16.6 Panoramic radiography
    16.7 Use of multiple film loading
    16.8 Specimen configuration

    17.0 Darkroom facilities, techniques and processing

    17.1 Facilities and equipment
    17.2 Automatic film processor Vs manual processing
    17.3 Safe lights
    17.4 Viewer lights
    17.5 Miscellaneous equipment
    17.6 Cassette loading techniques for sheet and roll
    17.7 Protection of radiographic film in storage
    17.8 Processing of film – manual
    17.9 Developer and replenishment
    17.10 Stop bath
    17.11 Fixer and replenishment
    17.12 Washing
    17.13 Prevention of water spots
    17.14 Drying

    18.0 Automatic film processing

    19.0 Film filing and storage

    19.1 Retention – life measurements
    19.2 Long term storage
    19.3 Filing and separation techniques

    20.0 Film digitization techniques

    21.0 Unsatisfactory radiographs – causes and cures

    21.1 High film density
    21.2 Insufficient film density
    21.3 High contrast
    21.4 Low contrast
    21.5 Poor definition
    21.6 Fog
    21.7 Light leaks
    21.8 Artifacts

    22.0 Film density

    22.1 Step wedge comparison film
    22.2 Densitometers
    22.3 Calibration and use of above equipments

    23.0 Practical use of X ray and Gamma ray equipments

    24.0 Radiological safety principles review

    24.1 Controlling personnel exposure
    24.2 Time, distance, shielding concepts
    24.3 ALARA
    24.4 Radiation detection equipment
    24.5 Exposure device operating characteristics

    25.0 Indications, discontinuities and defects

    25.1 Indications
    25.2 Discontinuities
    25.3 Inherent
    25.4 Processing
    25.4 Service

    26.0 Manufacturing processes and associated discontinuities

    26.1 Casting processes and associated discontinuities
    26.2 Ingots, blooms and billets
    26.3 Sand casting
    26.4 Centrifugal casting
    26.5 Investment casting

    27.0 Wrought processes and associated discontinuities

    27.1 Forgings
    27.2 Rolled products
    27.3 Extruded products

    28.0 Welding processes and associated discontinuities

    28.1 SAW
    28.2 SMAW
    28.3 GMAW
    28.4 FCAW
    28.5 GTAW
    28.6 Resistance welding
    28.7 Special welding processes – Electron beam, electroslag etc.

    29.0 Introduction to Codes, Standards, Specifications and Procedures

    29.1 Discussion on ASTM E 94 / E 142
    29.2 Question answer session on above codes
    29.3 Interpretation / Evaluation
    29.4 Materials processing as it affects use of item and test results
    29.5 Discontinuities, their causes and effects
    29.6 Radiographic appearance of discontinuities
    29.7 Nonrelevant indications
    29.8 Film artifacts

    30.0 Acceptance criteria

    NDTTech recommended training time for Level I / II – 80 Hours ( 10 Days)
    Recommended training references: (1) ASNT Hand book on RT (2) Nondestructive Testing hand book, Robert Mc Master (3) SNT TC 1A The above could be considered the minimum delivery topics. Participants are expected to learn and answer questions from these topics in the Level I / Level II examination.