Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Ultrasonic testing uses the transmission of high frequency sound waves into a material to detect imperfections within the material or changes in material properties. The most commonly used ultrasonic testing method is Pulse echo, wherein sound is introduced into the test object and reflections are returned to a receiver from internal imperfections and geometrical surfaces of the part. *Indicates the minimum days of classes.

Theory and Specification part of this course is also currently offered online by experienced ASNT certified Level III instructors and practical will be taken at our facilities upon completion of Theory and Specification. Online course delivery may use Malayalam, Hindi and English. Study materials will be in English. Kindly contact us for more information.

Training to Level I Duration: 12 days*
Training to Level II Duration: 12 days*
Training – Level II Refresher Duration: 12 days*
  • View Syllabus

    1.0 Definition of Ultrasonics

    1.1 History of Ultrasonic Testing
    1.2 Applications of ultrasonic energy
    1.3 Basic math review
    1.4 Responsibilities of levels of certification

    2.0 Basic principles of acoustics

    2.1 Nature of sound waves
    2.2 Modes of sound wave generation
    2.3 Velocity, frequency and wavelength of sound waves
    2.4 Attenuation of sound waves
    2.5 Acoustic impedance
    2.6 Reflection
    2.7 Refraction and mode conversion
    2.8 Snell’s law and critical angles
    2.9 Fresnel effects

    3.0 Equipment

    3.1 Basic pulse echo instrumentation
    3.2 A, B and C scan
    3.3 Electronics – Time base, pulser, receiver and various monitor displays
    3.4 Control functions
    3.5 Basic instrument calibration
    3.6 Calibration blocks
    3.7 Digital thickness instrumentation

    4.0 Transducer operation and theory

    4.1 Piezo electric effect
    4.2 Types of elements
    4.3 Frequency
    4.4 Near and far field
    4.5 Beam spread
    4.6 Construction, materials and shapes
    4.7 Transducer types
    4.7.1 Normal
    4.7.2 Angle
    4.7.3 TR
    4.8 Beam intensity characteristics
    4.9 Sensitivity, resolution and damping
    4.10 Mechanical vibration into part
    4.11 Other types of transducers
    4.11.1 Paint brush
    4.11.2 Array
    4.11.3 Wheel

    5.0 Couplants

    5.1 Purpose and principles
    5.2 Materials and their efficiency
    5.3 Air coupled devices

    6.0 Basic Testing methods

    6.1 Contact
    6.2 Immersion
    6.3 Air coupling

    7.0 Surface wave and plate waves

    7.1 Applications of surface waves

    8.0 Surface considerations

    8.1 Flat and curved surfaces
    8.2 Other geometrical changes

    9.0 Pulse echo

    9.1 Technique comparison

    10.0 Through transmission

    11.0 Video on immersion testing, Demonstration of Immersion testing system installed in the classroom

    12.0 Alarms

    13.0 Automatic and semiautomatic systems

    14.0 DAC

    14.1 Manual DAC
    14.2 Electronic DAC
    14.3 Use of DGS scales

    15.0 Inspection calibration

    15.1 Comparison with reference blocks
    15.2 Pulse echo variables
    15.3 Reference for planned tests
    15.4 Transmission factors
    15.5 Transducer
    15.6 Couplants
    15.7 Materials

    16.0 Straight beam examination to specific procedures

    16.1 Selection of parameters
    16.2 Test standards
    16.3 Evaluation of results
    16.7 Test reports

    17.0 Angle beam examination to specific procedures

    17.1 Selection of parameters
    17.2 Test standards
    17.3 Evaluation of results
    17.4 Test reports

    18.0 Discontinuity detection on test specimens having natural and artificial discontinuities

    18.1 Sensitivity to reflections
    18.2 Size, shape and location of discontinuities
    18.3 Techniques used in detection
    18.4 Wave characteristics
    18.5 Material and velocity

    19.0 Resolution

    19.1 Standard reference comparisons
    19.2 History of part
    19.3 Probability of type of discontinuity
    19.4 Degrees of operator discrimination
    19.5 Effects of frequency
    19.6 Damping effects

    20.0 Determination of discontinuity size

    20.1 Various monitor displays and meter indications
    20.2 Transducer movement Vs display
    20.3 Two dimentional testing techniques
    20.4 Signal patterns

    21.0 Location of discontinuity

    21.1 Amplitude and linear time
    21.2 Search technique

    22.0 Evaluation

    22.1 Comparison procedures
    22.2 Standards and references
    22.3 Amplitude, area and distance relationship
    22.4 Reference reflectors for calibration
    22.5 FBH, Balls, Distance amplitude, Area amplitude, SDH
    22.6 Application of results of other NDT methods

    23.0 Codes, standards, Specifications and procedures

    23.1 Understanding the concepts of Specifications

    24.0 Short discussion on ASME Codes: ASME`Section V and VIII

    25.0 Indications, discontinuities and defects

    25.1 Indications
    25.2 Discontinuities
    25.3 Inherent
    25.4 Processing
    25.5 Service

    26.0 Manufacturing processes and associated discontinuities

    26.1 Casting processes and associated discontinuities
    26.2 Ingots, blooms and billets
    26.3 Sand casting
    26.4 Centrifugal casting
    26.5 Investment casting

    27.0 Wrought processes and associated discontinuities

    27.1 Forgings
    27.2 Rolled products
    27.3 Extruded products

    28.0 Welding processes and associated discontinuities

    28.1 SAW
    28.2 SMAW
    28.3 GMAW
    28.4 FCAW
    28.5 GTAW
    28.6 Resistance welding
    28.7 Special welding processes – Electron beam, electroslag etc.

    29.0 Introduction to Codes, Standards, Specifications and Procedures

    29.1 Discussion on ASTM A 435 / E 164
    29.2 Question answer session on above codes
    29.3 Interpretation / Evaluation
    29.4 Materials processing as it affects use of item and test results
    29.5 Discontinuities, their causes and effects
    29.6 Ultrasonic interpretation of discontinuities
    29.7 Noise / cross talk indications
    29.8 Other considerations

    30.0 Acceptance criteria

    NDTTECH recommended training time for Level I / II – 96 Hours ( 12 Days minimum) Recommended training references: (1) ASNT Handbook on UT (2) Nondestructive Testing hand book, Robert Mc Master, (3) Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, J & H Kraukramer (4) SNT TC 1A The above could be considered the minimum delivery topics. Participants are expected to learn and answer questions from these topics in the Level I / Level II examination.